Julio César Centeno | Rebelión | 24/09/2016

375 de los científicos más prominentes en la materia, incluyendo 30 premios Nobel, advierten sobre la inacción política ante el calentamiento global en su pronunciamiento del 20 de septiembre 2016.

El calentamiento global es consecuencia de la actividad humana. No es una creencia, ni una teoría; no es un fraude o una conspiración. Es una realidad física.

El consumo de combustibles fósiles motorizó la revolución industrial. Pero también provocó aumentos en la concentración de gases de efecto invernadero en la atmósfera, provocando cambios significativos en el clima del planeta.

Las huellas del calentamiento global son visibles por todas partes: aumenta el nivel del mar, se calientan los océanos, se calienta la atmósfera y la superficie terrestre, se derriten las capas de hielo en el Ártico, en la Antártida, en los glaciares; se alteran los patrones de las lluvias, se acidifican los océanos, se propagan enfermedades, se extinguen especies, se amenaza el suministro de agua y alimentos a la población mundial.

El cambio climático provocado por la actividad humana no es algo alejado de nuestras experiencias diarias, afectando sólo lugares remotos. Es algo presente, aquí y ahora, en nuestro país, en nuestras comunidades. Es posiblemente la mayor amenaza actual para la humanidad, erosionando nuestra habilidad para construir un mejor futuro.

La ciencia del calentamiento global es conocida desde hace más de un siglo. Las evidencias, cada vez más fuertes, claras y contundentes, condujeron a todos los gobiernos del mundo a suscribir elAcuerdo de París en diciembre 2015. Participaron todos los países, a pesar de sus pronunciadas diferencias en sistemas de gobierno, en intereses nacionales, en responsabilidad por las emisiones acumuladas, en vulnerabilidad ante las crecientes consecuencias de los cambios climáticos en gestación. Los líderes de 193 países reconocieron que el calentamiento global es una amenaza real para las generaciones presentes y futuras de todo el planeta.

Las evidencias son incuestionables. Ningún científico con reputación las disputa. Es simplemente la verdad.

Sin embargo, a pesar del Acuerdo de París, corremos el riesgo de cruzar puntos sin retorno, como alteraciones en la circulación oceánica, la pérdida de enormes masas de hielo y la extinción de especies. Tales riesgos provocarían modificaciones dramáticas durante miles de años. No debemos asumir los riesgos de cruzar estos límites.

En la campaña presidencial de los Estados Unidos se vociferan dudas sobre el calentamiento global, o se insinúa que es sólo un proceso natural, o se afirma que el calentamiento global es un fraude. Estos señalamientos son falsos.

No son señalamientos nuevos. Se presentan en cada elección. Para el partido republicano es una condición electoral. Es realmente lamentable que el partido de Abraham Lincoln, el presidente que inició la Academia Nacional de las Ciencias, sea ahora cuestionado por la Academia Nacional de las Ciencias de hoy. Es igualmente lamentable que el partido de Richard Nixon, quien estableció laAgencia de Protección Ambiental, trate ahora de eliminarla. Más lamentable aún es que el partido que presume promover una visión fiscalmente conservadora, con su insostenible posición sobre el calentamiento global provoque costos económicos y sociales muchos más altos para todos los ciudadanos.

Los científicos hemos advertido por décadas sobre los peligros del calentamiento global para todo el mundo. Vemos como tales predicciones se han venido corroborando. Ya no hay científicos de reputación en desacuerdo sobre los factores fundamentales que modifican el clima.

A pesar de este progreso, no faltan quienes pretendan conducirnos al pasado, quienes se ciegan ante las contundentes evidencias científicas. Para aquellos ciudadanos que voten por políticos que niegan la ciencia, que arremeten contra los científicos en lugar de arremeter contra las causas del calentamiento global, su legado será el calentamiento global que pudieron haber contribuido a evitar.

¿Qué le dirán a sus hijos?

Firmado por:

Benjamin D. Santer, Member, National Academy of Sciences^

Kerry A. Emanuel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology^

George B. Field, Harvard University^

Ray Weymann, Carnegie Institution for Science Emeritus^

Peter C. Agre, Johns Hopkina Malaria Research Institute

Bruce Alberts, University of California San Francisco

Thomas D. Albright, The Salk institute for Biological Studies

Richard M. Amasino, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Jim Anderson, Harvard University

Phillip W. Anderson, Princeton University

Roger Angel, University of Arizona

Luc E. Anselin, University of Chicago

Fred Anson, California Institute of Technology

David Arnett, Univerity of Arizona

Mary T. Kalin Arroyo, University of Chile

Greg Asner, Carnegie Institution for Science

Sir Michael Atiyah, University of Edinburgh

Tanya M. Atwater, University of California Santa Barbara

Francisco J. Ayala, University of California Irvine

George Backus, University of California San Diego

Neta Bahcall, Princeton University

Steven Balbus, University of Oxford

David Baltimore, California Institute of Technology

Allen Bard, University of Texas

Sir David Baulcombe, University of Cambridge

Adriaan Bax, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Barry J. Beaty, Colorado State University

Michael Bender, Princeton University

Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University

Michael V.L. Bennett, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Jeffrey L. Bennetzen, University of Georgia

John Bercaw, California Institute of Technology

May R. Berenbaum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Howard Berg, Harvard University

Robert Bergman, University of California Berkeley

Jacques E. Blamont, Centre National d’ Etudes Spatiales

Roger Blandford, Stanford University

Michael R Botchan, University of California Berkeley

Ed A. Boyle, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Daniel Branton, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Winslow Briggs, Carnegie Institution for Science

Steven P. Briggs, University of California San Diego

Wallace Broecker, Columbia University

Axel T. Brunger, Stanford University

Douglas W. Burbank, University of California Santa Barbara

E. Margaret Burbidge, University of California San Diego Emerita

John Cairns, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Mark A. Cane, Columbia University

Claude Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Marian Carlson, Columbia University

John Carlson, Yale University

Stephen Carpenter, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Sean B. Carroll, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Emily A. Carter, Princeton University

Katherine Cashman, University of Bristol

Juan Carlos Castilla, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Anny Cazenave, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales

Thure E. Cerling, University of Utah

Sylvia T. Ceyer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Martin Chalfie, Columbia University

F. Stuart Chapin, University of Alaska

Roger Chevalier, University of Virginia

Steven Chu, Stanford University

Ralph Cicerone, Professor Emeritus, University of California

David E. Clapham, Harvard Medical School

George Clark, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Michael T. Clegg, University of California Irvine

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel

Jonathan J. Cole, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Rita R. Colwell, University of Maryland

Karen S. Cook, Stanford University

Richard M. Cowling, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University

James Cronin, University of Chicago

Paul J. Crutzen, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry

Roy Curtiss III, University of Florida

Gretchen Daily, Stanford University

G. Brent Dalrymple, Oregon State University

Sir Partha Dasgupta, University of Cambridge

Earl W. Davie, University of Washington

Russ E. Davis, University of California San Diego

Marc Davis, University of California Berkeley

Ruth DeFries, Columbia University

Edward F. DeLong, University of Hawaii Manoa

David L. Denlinger, Ohio State University

George Denton, University of Maine

Donald DePaolo, Univerity of California Berkeley

Bob Dickinson, University of Texas

Rodolfo Dirzo, Stanford University

Michael J. Donoghue, Yale University

Russell F. Doolittle, University of California San Diego

Dennis A. Dougherty, California Institute of Technology

John E. Dowling, Harvard University

Bruce Draine, Princeton University

Alan Dressler, Carnegie Institution for Science

Thomas Dunne, University of California Santa Barbara

Joseph R. Ecker, Member, National Academy of Sciences

R. Lawrence Edwards, University of Minnesota

Paul Ehrlich, Stanford University

John M. Eiler, California Institute of Technology

David Eisenberg, University of California Los Angeles

Richard Eisenberg, University of Rochester

W. Gary Ernst, Stanford University

Mark Estelle, University of California San Diego

James A. Estes, University of California Santa Cruz

Paul Falkowski, Rutgers University

Nina V. Fedoroff, Pennsylvania State University Emerita

Juli Feigon, University of California Los Angeles

Joseph Felsenstein, University of Washington

Alex Filippenko, University of California Berkeley

Gerald D. Fischbach, Simons Foundation, Chief Scientist

Edmond H. Fischer, University of Washington

Donald Forsyth, Brown University

Stewart Fotheringham, Arizona State University

Wendy Freedman, University of Chicago

Katherine H. Freeman, Pennsylvania State University

Perry Allen Frey, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Margaret T. Fuller, Stanford University

Douglas J. Futuyma, Stony Brook University

Fred H. Gage, Salk Institute for Biological Research

Chris Garrett, University of Victoria

Neil Gehrels, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Reinhard Genzel, Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik

Howard Georgi, Harvard University

Charles Gilbert, The Rockefeller University

Sheldon Glashow, Boston University

Roy Glauber, Harvard University

Alexander N. Glazer, University of California Berkeley

Peter H. Gleick, Pacific Institute

Stephen P. Goff, Columbia University

Robert B. Goldberg, University of California Los Angeles

Peter Goldreich, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton

Michael Goodchild, University of California Santa Barbara

Richard Goody, Harvard University

Fred Gould, North Carolina State University

Harry Gray, California Institute of Technology

Paul Greengard, Rockefeller University

Diane E. Griffin, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

David Gross, University of California Santa Barbara

Charles G. Gross, Princeton University

Carol A. Gross, University of California San Francisco

Timothy Grove, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Robert H. Grubbs, California Institute of Technology

Jim Gunn, Princeton University

Sarah Hake, Agricultural Research Service

Alexander Halliday, University of Oxford

Jim Hansen, Columbia University

Susan Hanson, Clark University

Stanley Hart, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Daniel L. Hartl, Harvard University

Dennis Hartmann, University of Washington

Robert Haselkorn, The University of Chicago

Alan Hastings, University of California Davis

Robert M. Hauser, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Stephen Hawking, Cambridge University

Wick C. Haxton, Univerity of California Berkeley

John Hayes, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University

Timothy Heckman, Johns Hopkins University

Carl Heiles, University of California Berkeley

Lars Hernquist, Harvard University

Dudley Herschbach, Harvard University

John G. Hildebrand, University of Arizona

David M. Hillis, University of Texas

Sarah Hobbie, University of Minnesota

Bert Hoelldobler, Arizona State University

Paul F. Hoffman, University of Victoria

Albrecht W. Hofmann, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry

Sir Brian Hoskins, Imperial College London & University of Reading

Andre T. Jagendorf, Cornell University

Daniel H. Janzen, University of Pennsylvania

J.R. Jokipii, University of Arizona

Tom Jordan, University of Southern California

Jean Jouzel, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climate et de l’Environnement

William A. Jury, University of California Riverside

H. Ronald Kaback, University of California Los Angeles

Thomas Kailath, Stanford University

Peter M. Kareiva, University of California Los Angeles

David Karl, University of Hawaii

Harvey Karten, Professor Emeritus, University of California San Diego

Guinevere Kauffmann, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics

Steve A. Kay, University of Southern California

Paul Kay, International Computer Science Institute

Peter Kelemen, Columbia University

Kenneth Kellermann, National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Donald Kennedy, Stanford University

Charles Kennel, University of California San Diego

Robert C. Kennicutt, Cambridge University

Wolfgang Ketterle, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Margaret Kidwell, University of Arizona

Susan W. Kieffer, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Peter S. Kim, Stanford University

Patrick V. Kirch, University of California Berkeley

Margaret Kivelson, University of California Los Angeles

Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Catherine L. Kling, Iowa State University

Judith P. Klinman, University of California Berkeley

Eric I. Knudsen, Stanford University School of Medicine

Brian Koblika, Stanford University School of Medicine

M.A.R. Koehl, Univerity of California Berkeley

David Kohlstedt, University of Minnesota

Sir Hans Kornberg, Boston University

John Krebs, University of Oxford

Shrinivas Kulkarni, California Institute of Technology

J. Clark Lagarias, University of California Davis

Kurt Lambeck, Australian National University

Eric Lambin, Stanford University

Arthur Landy, Brown University

Charles H. Langmuir, Harvard University

Brian A. Larkins, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

John H. Law, University of Arizona Emeritus

Sir John Lawton, Former Chief Executive, UK Natural Environment Research Council

Yuan Lee, Academica Sinica Taiwan

Richard E. Lenski, Michigan State University

Simon Levin, Princeton University

Michael Levitt, Stanford University School of Medicine

Gene E. Likens, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Laszlo Lorand, Feinberg Medical School Northwestern University Emeritus

C. Owen Lovejoy, Kent State University

Jane Lubchenco, Oregon State University

Jonathan I. Lunine, Cornell University

Michael Lynch, Indiana University

Akin Mabogunje, Foundation for Development and Environmental Initiatives

Trudy Mackay, North Carolina State University

Anthony P. Mahowald, University of Chicago

Syukuro Manabe, Princeton University

Joyce Marcus, University of Michigan

Rudolph A. Marcus, California Institute of Technology

Douglas S. Massey, Princeton University

Pamela A. Matson, Stanford University

Rowena G. Matthews, University of Michigan Emerita

Michel G. Mayor, University of Geneva

Bonnie J. McCay, Rutgers University

Richard McCray, University of Colorado

Bruce S. McEwen, Rockefeller University

Fred McLafferty, Cornell University

Jim McWilliams, University of California Los Angeles

Jerrold Meinwald, Cornell University

Jerry M. Melillo, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole

Henry J. Melosh, Purdue University

Sabeeha Merchant, University of California Los Angeles

Joachim Messing, Rutgers University

Mario Molina, University of California San Diego

Harold Mooney, Stanford University

Peter B. Moore, Yale University

James M. Moran, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Nancy Moran, University of Texas

M. Granger Morgan, Carnegie Mellon University

Ellen S. Mosley-Thompson, Ohio State University

Walter Munk, University of California San Diego

Royce Murray, Univeristy of North Carolina

Sidney Nagel, University of Chicago

Ramesh Narayan, Harvard University

Jeremy Nathans, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Eugene W. Nester, University of Washington

William T. Newsome, Stanford University

Richard P. Novick, New York University School of Medicine

Paul E. Olsen, Columbia University

Peter Olson, Johns Hopkins University

Neil D. Opdyke, University of Florida

Jeremiah Ostriker, Columbia University

Sarah Otto, University of British Columbia

Sir Ronald Oxburgh, Cambridge University

Stephen Pacala, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Norman R. Pace, University of Colorado

Richard D. Palmiter, University of Washington School of Medicine

Stephen Palumbi, Stanford University

Joseph Pedlosky, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Jim Peebles, Princeton University

Gordon Pettengill, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

S. George Philander, Princeton University

William Phillips, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Dolores R. Piperno, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Terry Plank, Columbia University

William H. Press, University of Texas

Frank Press, Member, National Academy of Sciences

George W. Preston, Carnegie Institution for Science

Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden

Maureen E. Raymo, Columbia University

Martin Rees, Cambridge University

Peter Rhines, University of Washington

Frank Richter, University of Chicago

Robert E. Ricklefs, University of Missouri

Lynn M. Riddiford, University of Washington

George Rieke, University of Arizona

Marcia Rieke, University of Arizona

Adam Riess, Johns Hopkins University

Morton Roberts, National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Gene E. Robinson, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A. Kimball Romney, University of California Irvine

Michael Rosbash, Brandeis University

Mal Ruderman, Columbia University

Roberta L. Rudnick, University of California Santa Barbara

Gary Ruvkun, Massachusetts General Hospital

Roald Sagdeev, University of Maryland

Pedro A. Sanchez, Columbia University

David Sandwell, University of California San Diego

Joshua R. Sanes, Harvard University

Daniel L. Schacter, Harvard University

Paul Schechter, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Randy W. Schekman, University of California Berkeley

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

David W. Schindler, University of Alberta

Bill Schlesinger, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Johanna Schmitt, University of California Davis

Robert J. Scholes, University of the Witswatersrand

Julian Schroeder, University of California San Diego

Gerald Schubert, Universty of California Los Angeles

Matthew P. Scott, President, Carnegie Institution for Science

Sara Seager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ronald R. Sederoff, North Carolina State University

Jeff Severinghaus, University of California San Diego

Irwin Shapiro, Harvard University

Carla J. Shatz, Stanford University

Peter Shearer, University of California San Diego

Frank Shu, University of California San Diego

Kerry Sieh, Nanyang Technological University

James Simons, Chairman, Simons Foundation

Norman H. Sleep, Stanford University

Susan Solomon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Pamela S. Soltis, University of Florida

Alfred Sommer, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

David Spergel, Princeton University

Nicholas C. Spitzer, University of California San Diego

Charles Steidel, California Institute of Technology

Thomas A. Steitz, Yale University

Edward Stolper, California Institute of Technology

Howard A. Stone, Princeton University

Joan E. Strassmann, Washington University, St. Louis

Timothy Swager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Lynn R. Sykes, Columbia University Emeritus

Harvey Tananbaum, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Joseph Taylor, Princeton University

Saul A. Teukolsky, Cornell University

David Hurst Thomas, American Museum of Natural History

Lonnie Thompson, Ohio State University

Kip Thorne, Member, National Academy of Sciences

James M. Tiedje, Michigan State University

Alar Toomre, Massachusetts Institute of technology

Scott Tremaine, Institute for Advanced Study

Susan Trumbore, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry

James Tumlinson, Pennsylvania State University

Monica G. Turner, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Anthony Tyson, University of California Davis

Joan Selverstone, Valentine University of California Los Angeles

James L. Van Etten, University of Nebraska

Martha Vaughan, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Inder Verma, The Salk institute for Biological Studies

George Veronis, Yale University

Peter H. von Hippel, University of Oregon

Gerhard Wagner, Harvard Medical School

David B. Wake, University of California Berkeley

David Walker, Columbia University

John M. Wallace, University of Washington

E. Bruce Watson, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Steven Weinberg, University of Texas

Rainer Weiss, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

William J. Welch, University of California Berkeley

Mary Jane West-Eberhard, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Emerita

Simon D.M. White, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics

Torsten N. Wiesel, President Emeritus, The Rockefeller University

Edward O. Wilson, Harvard University

Robert W. Wilson, Member, National Academy of Sciences

David Wineland, Member, National Academy of Sciences

Steven Wofsy, Harvard University

Julian Wolpert, Princeton University

John Wood, Member, National Academy of Sciences

George M. Woodwell, Woods Hole Research Center

Stanford E. Woosley, University of California Santa Cruz

Carl Wunsch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Keith Yamamoto, University of California San Francisco

Martin Yanofsky, University of California San Diego

Tilahun Yilma, University of California Davis

William Young, University of California San Diego

Mary Lou Zoback, Stanford University

Maria T. Zuber, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

 

Responsible Scientists

 

CIENCIA Y MITOS SOBRE EL CALENTAMIENTO GLOBAL  

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  1. ¡Es terrible!, pero mientras no se apliquen medidas contundentes a nivel mundial y con una reiterada difusión mediática, millones de ciudadanos no se concienciarán.

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